Strategie von Einst- Gegenwart heute. Schlieffen,Moltke,Mackinder-Obama. Europa von den USA verraten?


Wie Deutschland England am Kanal treffen wollte.

Wie Deutschland England am Kanal treffen wollte.


Der deutsche Aufmarsch von 1913/14 war bestimmt durch die enge Abstimmung zwischen militäischer Planung und politischem Ziel.






Bernd F. Schulte(c)

The German War-Plan of 1913/14 unveiled.


This thesis (some news at linkedin/books reviews) is well known since the „Groener-School“ (Kuhl, Kluck, Groener, W.Foerster) attacked the former Chief of the General Staff, Generaloberst Helmuth von Moltke and his warplan (Bredt 1929).

Even the youngest publication of the „Forschungsamt der Bundeswehr“/Potsdam is following this path. In reality Moltke was of higher quality, and, in his strategic thinking, much more far reaching than viewed up till now. Not to speak of his close partnership with the Imperial Chancellor von Bethmann Hollweg and his „policy of pretention“. First, this as to the general warplan of Imperial Germany as whole, and secondly, in respect to the attended operations on the western and the eastern fronts.

In the east, Moltke even recognized the eventuality that russian forces might propell westward up to the river Oder, east of Berlin. For this reason, the fortress Küstrin was held on a modern standard (à la Brialmont): a belt-system of forts, resembling for instance Verdun. Even to be seen today in the landscape of the „Oderbruch“. In the west, Moltke thoroughly prepared the annihilation of the French armies of attack in Lorrain, between Metz and Strasbourg. His planning was characterized by a „unité de doctrine“, consisting of a sensible construct of attack and retreat. Sort of strategic „souplesse“, resembling the former French tactics, in the 1880ies.

Following the French forces, in full retreat, on the french forces‘ heels, the 6th German Army (Bavarian) should have to follow through the „Gap of Charmes“ (in the French line of fortresses between Verdun and Belfort), in order to reach hand to the 4th and 5th armies west of Verdun.

The 1st and 2nd German armies of the right wing had to take up front against the French forces, attacking out of Paris (Gallieni) in general direction: Reims/Verdun. Never the grand turn around westwars to Paris had been an option. The leading idea of the German military elite in those times remained completely d’accord with it’s glorious past, as well as with the intentions of the German emperor William IInd, who spoke of the battle of anihilation on the „Fields of Catalaun“ (450 pst J.Ch.), near Troyes. He wished a huge, doublesize „Sedan“. In his view: quite comprehensible, the originial German military thinking of those times, followed sort of a redline between Sedan (1870) and the Marne (1914).

The research of the „Imperial Archive“ at Potsdam (1919-1946) was centered around political objectives (after 1914/19, preparing the second attempt, meant: WW II, by outlining weak leaders and their faults like those at the river Sambre etc.) and combined research on the nowadays lost archive material. This of course revealed more than the commanders in chief, between the 3rd and the 2nd armies, were able to recognize in the dust of the Champaign-region. As well as the very eager von Kluck and von Kuhl of the 1st army, rushing for and aiming to Paris.

Moltke, on his side, was leading by strategic directives. A form of military leading, developed and executed in between 1864 and 1914 by the prussian army to a high standard, more general in tendence than in custom today, but furtheron following the great tradition of his uncle, the successfull Fieldmarschall of 1866/1870.

And: on th 4th of september 1914 he held back the 1st army and ordered a new objective: front against Paris! All this had nothing to do with the so called „Schlieffen-Plan“ of 1904/05. This paper Moltke found in February 1906 on his desk (Secret Archive of the Great General Staff). Forming more or less the simple heritage of the retired general count Schlieffen (containing his thesis, to spend in future more money for the army), and whom his rival, Colmar von der Goltz-Pascha, the instructor of the turkish army, named the „sleeping Ulan“.

There is, so to say, a lot of work left to the historians, open minded and not dominated by the interest of Gerhard Ritter (1956), who was calling the German military elite the loser of the First World War. By this defending the imperial politics of Bethmann Hollweg, and by this it’s positive tradition in the future to come past 1956.

German Historian on Mackinders Heartlands Masters – GEOPOLITICS



  1. Bernd F. SchulteGuido Giacomo Preparata, Conjuring Hitler. How Britain and America made ​​the Third Reich, New York 2005, S. XIX and 311th“Conjuring Hitler“ defends the thesis that England and the United States would have made Hitler. Much more interesting, however, are two other aspects; namely that the First World War had been operated by systematically England and the realization that this type of strategy today – pursued by the United States against Europe – in our days.Based on the idea lies in England (Mackinder 1900), Eurasia (i.e. Germany and Russia in the composite) were stronger than the flanking powers („island states“) be. To prevent this, the powers fight on the mainland is to steer such that the continental European states competed with each other and thus in the long run a united front (west and east – including against Japan) itself can not emerge.To examine the documents listed in detail, we save ourselves here; but note that the method of Anglo-Saxon international relations always after a morally positive designed, pattern seems to drain (triggering war, crusade ideas, etc.). But what may not exclude that, formerly in London – now an elementary own war intent could be based in Washington. Seem to be that these days come out military conflicts from the fashion, forces itself on us now, since now „at war“ with financial, and monetary resources (eg to Europe) is. The American Preparata so – possibly – 2005 a US-American stratagem laid bare.From:

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